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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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ANNUAL 
REPORT 



FISCAL YEAR 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1974 



T-7 

34 

1074 



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The Bicentennial celebration has\focused attention on MDC's historic sites. Among them are (clockwise from tonj 
Hill Monument, Norumbega Towir in Weston, a memorial to Leif Erikson, Norse explorer who is believedJrftjfiL*e51led up 
Charles River in 1000 A.D.; Quincy Homestead in Quincy; Rort Independence at Castle Island, South Boat^^fering a military 
history back to pre-Revolutionary War years; an interior section of Fort Warren on Georges lsla$d-7& harbor defense in all 
American wars and scene of a Civil War Prison for Confederate personnel, and Fort tv-*--^' 



FRANCIS W. SARGENT 
Governor 

CHARLES H. W. FOSTER 
Secretary of Environmental Affairs 

JOHN W. SEARS 
Commissioner 

Associate Commissioners 

JOHN A. CRONIN 

JOHN F. HAGGERTY 

ARTHUR T. LYMAN, JR. 

VINCENT P. O'BRIEN 

JOHN A. KESSLER, JR. 
Secretary of the Commission 

MARTIN F. COSGROVE 
Chief Engineer 

Executive Assistants 

JOHN J. BEADES 

JAMES T. ODONNELL 

Chief Administrative Assistants 
JOHN F. SNEDEKER 
WILLIAM T. WELCH 





CONTENTS 

Highlights 3 

Water Supply 4 

Parks Development 7 

Recreation Activity 10 

Zoos 13 

Historic Sites 15 

Pollution Control .16 

Transportation 19 

Metropolitan District Police 20 

Organization 22 

Finances 25 

District Membership Inside Back Cover 

District Map Back Cover 



JOHN W. WRIGHT 
General Counsel 



DIVISION DIRECTORS 



FRANCIS T. BERGIN 

Chief Construction Engineer 

Construction Engineering Division 

LAURENCE J. CARPENTER 
Superintendent of Police 

MASON J. CONDON 

Director of Parks Engineering 

Chief Parks Engineer 

ALLISON C HAYES 

Director of Sewerage Division 

Chief Sewerage Engineer 



ALFRED F. FERULLO 
Director of Environmental Quality 

WILLIAM T. KENNEY 
Director of Central Services 

JAMES J MATERA 

Director of Water Division 

Chief Water Supply Engineer 

MARTIN WEISS 
Director of Environmental Planning 

ROBERT B WILLIAMS 
Director of Parks 



(Incumbents as of 6/30/74) 

Publication of this Document Approved by Alfred C Holland. State Purchasing 
2M-10-75-112901 Est Cost 90c 




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To His Excellency the Governor and the Secretary of Environmental Affairs: 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: 

To the Honorable Mayors, Selectmen, and Municipal Officials: 

To the Public of the Metropolitan Parks, Sewer, and Water Districts: 

We submit herewith the report of the activities of the Metropolitan District Commission for 
fiscal 1974. We hope that this document satisfies the requirements of Section 100 of Chapter 92 
of the General Laws, and further that it informs the political leaders and users of the MDC sys- 
tems about the performance of the agency. 

A year ago I wrote of the need of our agency to regain its sense of self-reliance. On the 
whole I believe this aim has been admirably accomplished. In the major water supply and water 
quality projects now underway in Massachusetts, MDC is not only participating but playing the 
leading role. We have had one of the most far-reaching land planning and acquisition programs 
in New England. We are much better able to care for our own internal needs. 

I spoke also of modernizing the agency. This purpose was met during 1973 and 1974 with 
the most substantial overhauling of the agency since 1919. This was carried out internally in the 
face of a pair of wide-ranging legislative reviews, a restudy of the agency by the Office of En- 
vironmental Affairs, and intense interest in the agency's activities by the media. It is my belief 
that the MDC emerged streamlined and stronger for the last quarter of the 20th century. 

Lastly, we pointed to the need to reacquire dynamism. Thanks to the remarkable perfor- 
mance of MDC men and women, this seems to have been accomplished. 

Although our activities substantially increased, our debt declined and our staffing was below 
1971 levels. Park and Water assessments actually dropped compared to 1972-73. MDC has held 
the line against inflation wonderfully well. 

It is again being argued that the agency should be disassembled. The record of recent years 
— increased services at steady costs — makes it clear how unfortunate this step would be. 



Respectfully submitted, 




John W. Sears 
Commissioner 



Highlights of the Year's Activity 



The challenge of ever-growing basic needs of urban 
life has continued as a primary focus of activity during 
the Metropolitan District Commission's 1974 fiscal year. 

Current and long range programs affecting 2.5 mil- 
lion inhabitants of 54 Greater Boston cities and towns 
embrace a wide range of regional services including 
water supply, sewage collection and treatment, pollu- 
tion abatement, recreation, parks, open space, zoos, law 
enforcement and movement of traffic. 

Expansion of facilities progressed in the Parks Dis- 
trict, featured by opening of MDC's third community 
sailing program, its second salt-water fishing pier, 26th 
skating rink and extension of the Charles River bikeway 
system. Among the large-scale recreation projects in the 
planning or design stage are conversion of the Mystic 
River Basin shoreline into a counterpart of the Charles 
River Esplanade, a major uplift of Stony Brook Reserva- 
tion and development of a Neponset River Park in con- 
junction with an indoor schoolboy track and athletic 
complex. 

The dramatic "Bird's World'' was completed, a 
forerunner of the free-running, natural setting for ani- 
mals planned for the new all-season Franklin Park Zoo. 

Recreation programming has emphasized new types 
of activity, such as cross-country skiing and canoeing, 
more intensive use of facilities and greater cooperation 
with municipal and private agencies in utilizing re- 
sources. 

Historic sites have been restored or upgraded and 
new attractions installed in preparation for the Bicen- 
tennial. 

An important fiscal change was effected for the 
Water District through legislation which shifted costly 
long-term financing of annual deficits to a pay-as-you- 
go policy. This required an increase from $120 to $200 
per million gallons — the first rate hike in 12 years. 
Growth of the district and future needs are being met by 
substantial expansion of the distribution system, while 
planning for supply demands of the next decade and a 
study looking ahead a half-century are proceeding. Two 
additional communities have been admitted to the dis- 
trict in 1973-74, bringing the total to 34. Projections in- 
dicate 40 more municipalities must rely on the MDC sys- 
tem for supplementary supply in the next generation. 
Meanwhile, consumption in excess of safe watershed 
yield still exists, stressing the urgency of implementing 
plans for additional supply sources. In another phase, 
plans and specifications are being prepared to install 
facilities for fluoridation and for control of corrosion in 



outmoded household lead pipes used in some older 
neighborhoods. 

Pollution control in the Sewerage District has been 
advanced by construction of the Squantum Force Main 
enabling a shut-down of the last remaining MDC sewer 
line continuously discharging raw sewage into Boston 
Harbor and near-completion of a harbor tidegate re- 
habilitation program. A major project enlarging the in- 
terceptor sewer system to reduce combined storm and 
sewage overflows is approaching completion on the 
Charles River Basin. Further pollution relief is expected 
from the new multi-purpose Charles River Dam. now 
under construction, which will greatly reduce the pol- 
lutant effect of salt water intrusion into the basin. De- 
signed primarily for flood control, the dam will include 
three locks, a fish ladder and a police boat patrol struc- 
ture. On the Mystic River, a new pre-treatment and 
chlorination station has been activated, along with a 
Somerville marginal conduit to carry combined over- 
flows to tidewater at the Amelia Earhart Dam. A com- 
prehensive study of wastewater management needs of 
the Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area to the 
year 2050 is being carried out under MDC direction. 

A widespread reorganization has been completed, 
particularly affecting parks and engineering functions. 
The changes also established two divisions specifically 
dealing with environmental areas, a board for land ac- 
quisition and development and a Central Services divi- 
sion, as well as centralizing administration and man- 
agement of MDC Police. 

A breakdown of MDC membership shows 43 cities 
and towns with 2.219.000 inhabitants in the Sewerage 
District, 34 communities and 1.939.000 residents in the 
Water District and 37 municipalities with 2.025.000 
population in the Parks District. Twenty-four muni- 
cipalities are members of all three districts. 12 are 
served by two districts and 18 by one district 

MDC s expenditure for the fiscal year ending June 
30. 1974. was $72,644,389. including $4,273,945 for 
projects funded by state highway bond issues and other 
state-financed activity such as flood control work This 
compared with $67,245,705 in 1973. of which $5,557,332 
came from state-financed bond issues, rather than MDC 
District funding. Nearly $4 million of the increase re- 
sulted from the shift of Engineering Division expense 
from long-term construction bond issues to an annual 
appropriation Thus the lion s share of the increase will 
eventually result in reduction of the agency s debt and 
the annual cost of debt expense Other factors were a 
cost-of-living salary increase and the impact of inflation 




WACHUSETT RESERVOIR is MDC's second largest water supply source, with a capacity of 65 billion gallons, as 
compared to 412 billion for Quabbin Reservoir. Located in the Clinton area, 32 miles from Boston, Wachusett is 8.4 
miles long, covers 6.5 square miles and has a 37-mile shoreline. In the foreground are its 115-foot-high dam, gener- 
ating plant and park. On the left shoreline is Wachusett-Marlboro Tunnel's intake works and power plant. 

(Aerial photo by Jack Maley, MDC) 



Costly Deficit Financing Abolished For Water System 



A shift from costly long-term financing of the Met- 
ropolitan Water District's annual deficits to a pay-as- 
you-go policy, requiring the first rate increase in 12 
years, has been accomplished in 1974. 

The long-sought change was a major development of 
the year, marked also by substantial progress toward 
expanding the distribution system, enlarging the 
district's service area and wide-ranging studies of water 
conservation and new supply sources. 

Legislation paved the way for an end to the expen- 
sive practice of piling up debt and interest obligations to 
defray deficits, as provided by law since 1945. The sys- 
tem has required $102 million in bond issues, $55.8 mil- 
lion of which is currently outstanding. Deficit debt has 
cost nearly $22 million in interest alone and imposed on 
future generations part of the cost' of current water con- 
sumption. 

The $120 rate per million gallons set by the Legisla- 
ture in 1962 has now risen to $200 for 1974 to equalize 



projected receipts with cost of debt and operation. 
Payments on deficit financing alone have soared to ap- 
proximately 25% of the district's expense — about $50 
of the $200 rate. A new expense factor arose from legis- 
lation imposing a $2 million charge for the Water 
Division's share of MDC's Engineering Division budget 
which had been formerly financed from various con- 
struction bond issues. 

Impact of the rate increase on consumers was ex- 
pected to be nominal — possibly a rise of 12% to 25% — 
since MDC's charge to cities and towns represents only 
a portion of municipal water department costs. 

Meanwhile, near-completion of large distribution 
lines in the northern and southern sections were im- 
proving service and adding to the growth of the Water 
District. 

The giant Dorchester Tunnel was scheduled for acti- 
vation in November, designed to meet growing needs 
and boost water pressure for 700,000 consumers in the 





TWO CENTURIES AGO. Boston's water was delivered 
by this type of two-inch log pipe, displayed by James J. 
Matera, Director and Chief Water Supply Engineer of 
MDC's Water Division. In contrast is Dorchester Tunnel. 
10 feet in diameter and 6.3 miles long, largest addition to 
distribution system in many years. MDC employees take a 
last look prior to water flow scheduled this fall. 

(MDC photos by Jack Maley and Tom Reilty) 



Southern Water Section. The $19.1 million tunnel is the 
largest expansion of the distribution system in 12 years, 
extending 6V3 miles from Chestnut Hill at the Brighton- 
Brookline line to Dorchester Lower Mills. Its capacity of 
300 million gallon per day (mgd) will augment existing 
capacity of 105 mgd for a large area of Boston and 
Brookline, Quincy, Milton, Canton and Norwood. 

Completion of this 10-foot-diameter tunnel also per- 
mits extending the Water District to the additional 
communities south of Boston which the Commission 
was authorized and directed to do by the 1974 Legisla- 
ture. Projected water mains and other facilities will meet 
future water requirements for Avon, Braintree, Hol- 
brook, Randolph, Stoughton and Weymouth, and an 
additional supply for Canton which is already a partial 
user-member. 

North of Boston, a $1.4 million pipeline linking 
Woburn with Spot Pond Reservoir was in its final 
stages, preparatory to construction of pumping 
facilities. Sufficient capacity is being provided for even- 
tual extensions to Reading and North Reading and fill- 
ing future needs of Stoneham and Wakefield, both pres- 
ent members of the Water District. 

Woburn has become the 33rd member of the district, 
followed this year by Wellesley, which has an unusual 
"readiness to serve" arrangement, allowing purchase of 
only as much water as the town desires. The provision 
encourages conservation by inducing Wellesley to rely 



Old Steam Pumping Engine 
Designated Historic Landmark 

MDC's Water Division is the proud owner of the 
first equipment to be designated as a National His- 
toric Mechanical Engineering Landmark — a 
Leavitt triple expansion steam pumping engine at 
Chestnut Hill Pumping Station. 

The pioneering engine, with a daily capacity of 
20 million gallons, was installed in 1894 and re- 
tired in 1928. Still in its original location, the 
equipment is regarded by Smithsonian Institution 
of Washington as an outstanding example of 
steam engineering. 



as much as possible on its local water sources through 
a waiver of the customary requirement for minimum 
purchase of one-third of its consumption. The town 
pays a $20,000 annual fee and a $1 million entrance 
charge spread over a 10-year period as its share of 
MDC s existing facilities. 

The two municipalities were among communities 
listed in an inter-agency study of future water demand 
indicating a rise from the current consumption of 312 
mgd to 475 mgd through 1990. These projections were 
based on supplementing local sources of 42 com- 
munities in addition to the 32 members presently draw- 



ing water and 10 others served under special agree- 
ments. 

Under law, MDC must admit to the Water District any 
community within 10 miles of the State House and any 
other municipality within 15 miles which the Commis- 
sion "can reasonably supply." Nine of the 42 cities and 
towns are within 10 miles, 23 in the 10-15-mile zone and 
10 beyond 15 miles with no option other than MDC for 
future supply. 

NEW SUPPLY SOURCES PLANNED 

In order to meet future growth, comprehensive plan- 
ning looking ahead at least 50 years has been initiated 
this year. The program is being conducted by the Met- 
ropolitan Water Supply Development Committee, coor- 
dinated by MDC and including representatives of the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, State Department of Pub- 
lic Health, State Water Resources Commission, Met- 
ropolitan Area Planning Council and public members. 

Under study are distribution facilities, methods of 
upgrading and expanding the system, new water supply 
sources and examination of water use, with emphasis 
on reducing waste and developing conservation tech- 
niques. 

An intensive study of the upper Sudbury River 
watershed has been launched to determine the potential 
supply from the 75 square mile area by tapping and 
treating freshet flows. The MDC's Sudbury Reservoir 
presently draws from a 22 square mile area. 

For more immediate needs of the next decade or 
more, plans are in progress for flood-skimming about 
1% of the excess freshet flow of the Connecticut River 
under specified conditions to feed into the district's 
principal source at Quabbin Reservoir. 

The plan would bolster MDC's annual supply by an 
average of 72 mgd — nearly 25% of the current safe 
yield. It provides for a 10-mile aqueduct link between 
Quabbin and the Northfield Mt. pumped storage reser- 
voir built by Northeast Utilities for hydro-electric power 
production. Progress on this diversion is awaiting con- 
summation of an agreement with Northeast Utilities on 
utilizing their facilities. 

The urgency for developing new supply sources in 
the next decade has been heightened by consumption 
exceeding the system's average safe yield of 300 mgd in 
recent years and long-range projections of average pre- 
cipitation, population trends and water demands. Water 
use soared to 321 mgd in 1971 — a record high — and 
has since dropped gradually to 312 mgd for this year. 

Reversal of an upward trend in consumption was at- 
tributed to lessened summertime demand induced by 
three wet years. In 1972, precipitation was 10.3 inches 
above the 44.8-inch annual average, 7.5 inches above 



Power Production, Fuel Cutback 
Assisted in '74 Energy Crisis 

A helping hand came from the MDC in the 
energy crisis of 1974. 

Hydro-electric power production was boosted 
at Quabbin and Wachusett reservoirs. 

Fuel oil consumption at the big Chestnut Hill 
pumping station was sharply diminished through 
the ingenuity of personnel who revamped the gate 
valve system and reduced pumping requirements. 

A large fuel oil cutback occurred at Deer Island 
Sewage Treatment Plant, where the heating sys- 
tem was adapted by personnel to methane gas, a 
by-product of the sludge digestion process. 

And householders seeking fireplace fuel to 
augment home heating were invited to garner 
wood from fallen trees and limbs at Middlesex 
Fells and Blue Hills reservations. 



average in 1973 and 1.8 inches above in 1974. Precipita- 
tion was below average for nine of the 12 years preced- 
ing 1972. 

Despite the recent favorable conditions, MDC's prin- 
cipal supply source at Quabbin Reservoir has not 
reached capacity since 1961 , the beginning of a six-year 
drought which lowered the 39-square-mile reservoir to 
45% of capacity by 1967. Quabbin's level ranged from a 
low of 78.4% of capacity to a high of 93.6% in the cur- 
rent year. 

Water conservation measures are already developing 
as another facet of supply solutions. Declining discount 
charges for high volume users have been replaced by a 
flat rate in some communities to encourage conserva- 
tion. One town has adopted a rate structure increasing 
charges as usage rises. Others are examining distribu- 
tion lines for leakage. On the legislative front, MDC has 
sought authority to establish regulations on water con- 
sumption and to prohibit discounts for quantity use. 

A start on construction of fluoridation facilities is an- 
ticipated for next year, following a 1974 appropriation of 
$1,150,000 for plant and equipment. Plans arid specifi- 
cations under preparation will incorporate an alkaline 
adjustment of the pH factor which may also assist in 
controlling corrosion in outmoded lead pipes still in use 
by homes in some older neighborhoods. Fluoridation is 
expected to save $7 million annually for persons under 
the age of 20 by reducing tooth decay, according to 
Massachusetts Dental Society's estimate. Its use on a 
district-wide basis will provide savings, too for member 
communities which are planning or already have in- 
stalled local fluoridation systems. 




CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING is a fast-growing sport which has been inaugurated at Ponkapoag Golf Course in Blue 
Hills Reservation, where instruction is provided by a professional guide service. Its popularity indicates a potential for 
other MDC areas. (Photo by Robert F George) 



Parks District Expands Recreation Facilities, Activities 



Completion of new facilities and considerable 
groundwork for further expansion of active and passive 
recreational opportunities marked Parks District activity 
during the year. 

Construction work and extensive planning and de- 
sign were devoted to a wide range of projects, including 
park reservations, athletic areas, sailing, zoo develop- 
ment, skating rinks, fishing, bikeways and upgrading 
many existing properties. 

The oncoming Bicentennial celebration drew much 
emphasis on enhancing historic sites at Bunker Hill, 
Fort Independence, Fort Warren and Quincy Home- 
stead. 

Developing additional uses of the parks system for 
recreation purposes was continued with such activity as 
cross-country skiing, tennis at skating rinks during off- 
season and a golf instruction camp for young people. 

The most dramatic project in progress is the new 
Mystic River Basin Park off Route 93 expressway in 
Somerville and Medford, destined to become a counter- 
part of the famed Charles River Basin and Esplanade. 
The site is a former estuary converted from unsightly, 
odorous tidal flats to a 525-acre fresh water basin by the 
Amelia Earhart Dam in 1966. 



A newly-completed master plan will transform the 
shoreline into a multi-million-dollar panorama of park, 
marine and recreational facilities. The new reservation 
will feature extensive landscaping, woodland environ- 
ment, pedestrian paths, bikeways. boat docks, fishing 
pier, benches, picnic tables and a wide variety of sports 
activities. 

Visible evidence of the basin s potential appeared for 
the 1974 season with the opening of a S210.000 sailing 
boathouse and docks on the Somerville shoreline — 
MDC's third sailing installation. 

Adjacent to the boathouse. a $132,000 project 
created a two-acre, landscaped park containing 180 
trees, benches, flagstone terrace, walks and parking lot. 

Across the river in Medford. a $1,075,000 skating rink 
was completed as part of the Hormel Stadium athletic 
complex, along with enlarged parking space, a new ac- 
cess road and landscaping. 

Meanwhile, upgrading of Mystic River Basin water 
progressed with activation of the $2,568,000 Somerville 
marginal conduit for combined storm water and sewage 
overflows and a pre-treatment and chlorination installa- 
tion. 

Fishermen went into action at the new $133,000 Wil- 



lis fishing pier jutting 435 feet into the Lynn Harbor 
mouth of Saugus River, MDC's second salt water pier 
for anglers. The other is at Castle Island, South Boston, 
built in 1964. The heavily-patronized pier is equipped 
with a slightly inclined ramp for the physically hand- 
icapped and adjoins a recreational area containing park- 
ing space, drinking water and toilet facilities. 

Fresh-water sportsmen found improved conditions at 
nine Parks District ponds, where water quality treatment 
dealt with weed and algae problems. 

Along Quincy Shore Drive a varied improvement 
program has been launched with the completion of ap- 
proaches and a $790,000 culvert-type structure replac- 
ing Sergt. Greenberg Bridge at Black's Creek, including 
tidegates to control tidal action and maintain upstream 
water level. 

Under another phase, an $827,000 contract has been 
awarded for dredging Black's Creek and installing a 
culvert under Southern Artery, designed for flood con- 
trol, improving tidal flow and deepening the tidal basin 
for sailing. 

In preparation is a $1 million project to reconstruct a 
3000-foot stretch of Shore Drive in the same vicinity, in- 
corporating a median strip, sidewalk, bicycle path, 
pedestrian lights and an uplift of recreational facilities at 
Caddy Park, known also as Treasure Island. Nearby his- 
toric Moswetuset Hummock is also slated for improve- 
ments under another contract. 



CHARLES RIVER PROGRAM 

An extensive beautification and development pro- 
gram was in progress along the Charles River. 

Finishing touches were placed on Charlesbank Park 
in Boston's West End which has been revitalized by in- 
stalling two lighted tennis courts, a new football-soccer 
field, relocation of the baseball field and bleachers and 
landscaping at a cost of $142,000. Nearby Hatch Memo- 
rial Shell was given a $111,000 facelift and considerable 
repair work. 

Upriver, a major restoration project neared the con- 
struction stage at Magazine Beach recreation area in 
Cambridge. 

On the Brighton-Boston shoreline, a master plan has 
been prepared for development of Herter Park, formerly 
Metropolitan Boston Arts Center, including renovation 
of the former Institute of Contemporary Arts building 
and the outdoor theater. A long-range plan calls for im- 
provements in a one-mile stretch along Soldiers Field 
Road. 

Another river-front uplift was ready for bidding — 
newly-named Pequasset Park on a former dump site 
adjacent to the Watertown skating rink — providing four 




SKI LIFT at Blue Hills Reservation provides easy ac- 
cess to popular winter sport for residents of Metropolitan 
Parks District. 

tennis courts, picnic area, walks, landscaping and park- 
ing at a cost of $289,000. 

In the Newton- Weston area, design work has started 
on a preliminary phase of restoring Riverside Park 
featuring a revival of canoeing and passive recreation. 

Site preparation was completed farther upstream on 
the newly-acquired, four-acre Old Mill site in Needham, 
running 675 feet along the Charles and incorporating 
Cochrane Dam. Officially renamed Village Falls Park, 
the area was scheduled for an early construction start 
on facilities for walking, picnicking, fishing, canoe 
launching and continuing an existing bridle path 
through the property. 

For recreation-minded and commuting bicyclists, a 
25-mile scenic bikeway system was well on its way along 
both sides of Charles River Basin, stretching from 
Watertown to Leverett Circle and Charles River Dam in 
Boston. Latest extension was a $163,000 contract for 
bike path construction on Greenough Boulevard, 
Memorial Drive, Cambridge Parkway and across Charles 




N AH ANT BEACH is among MDC's 17 ocean beaches 
which provide a big attraction for millions of all age levels. 

(Boston Globe photo by Ulnke Welsch) 

River Dam to Boston. A 3 /5th-mile section was built dur- 
ing the year on Greenough Boulevard, between Arsenal 
and North Beacon Street, Watertown. Design work is 
scheduled for a bicycle path along Soldiers Field Road 
in Brighton to connect North Beacon Street and Nonan- 
tum Road with Storrow Esplanade near Boston Univer- 
sity Bridge, completing the basin network. The bikeway 
system will bear the name of the late Dr. Paul Dudley 
White, eminent Boston heart specialist and advocate of 
bicycling for better health. 

SCHOOLBOY TRACK, NEPONSET PARK 

On another shorefront, a far-reaching development 
of the Neponset River area is taking shape with a 
badly-needed indoor schoolboy track as the centerpiece 
of a 43-acre athletic and park complex off Southeast 
Expressway in Dorchester. Design work has begun on 
the $3.1 million track, first phase of the proposed 
Neponset Park, which will also contain outdoor athletic 
activities, bicycle paths, picnic areas, boating accom- 
modations and an ice hockey forum. 



Women Working as Laborers 
Doing 'Terrific' Clean-up Job 

All-male MDC outdoor work crews have disap- 
peared, reflecting a trend of the times. 

For the first time, women have been hired as 
laborers, assigned to cleaning beaches, sweeping 
tot-lots, tidying park areas and even wielding a 
paint brush. 

They weren't women's liberationists — just 
workers who enjoy outdoor jobs and a chance to 
earn money for college and other necessities. And 
they don't mind being called laborers. 

A supervisor described them as terrific work- 
ers, apparently anxious to prove they can do the 
job as well as their male colleagues.' 

Women gained ground in another direction — 
as lifeguards at swimming pools and beaches. The 
number of females watching over bathers rose to 
95 out of a total of 450 in 1974, an increase of 23 
over the previous year. 



The design phase is proceeding on a multi-million- 
dollar facelift and development of Stony Brook Reserva- 
tion in the West Roxbury-Hyde Park section of Boston, 
highlighted by a recreational center for the handi- 
capped. 

Nearing the construction stage, also, is a passive 
recreation concept for Stodders Neck in Hingham. a 
22-acre peninsula on Weymouth Back River acquired in 
1972. The $200,000 project calls for walking paths, pic- 
nic areas, parking, landscaping and an elevated viewing 
area offering a spectacular view of Hingham and Quincy 
bays and Boston Harbor. 

The network of skating rinks was expanded to 26 
with completion of a $1,075,000 facility at the Hormel 
Stadium athletic complex in Medford. At a projected 
waterfront park in Boston s North End. work began on a 
$1,757,000 rink providing impressive harbor and park 
views and a 500-seat capacity. 

A number of smaller recreational projects were un- 
dertaken during the year, including athletic facilities and 
other development at Constitution Beach. East Boston, 
and at Saxon Foss Park in Somerville. 

Scattered through the parks system. 1700 trees and 
shrubs were planted in the fourth year of an aesthetic 
and environmental program, bringing the total plantings 
to nearly 12.000 in parks and along roadways and 
waterways. 




New Programs, Intensive Use 
Broaden Recreation Activities 



Responding to public desire for greater recreational 
activity, MDC has continued to widen its scope and in- 
tensify use of the park system. 

The trend during 1974 has developed cross-country 
skiing, new sailing, canoeing and fishing opportunities 
and a junior boys golf school and camp. Diversified off- 
season use of skating rinks for tennis lessons and other 
recreation produced more vacation outlets, while Hatch 
Shell events and the lure of harbor islands sent attend- 
ance soaring. Nature centers expanded their outdoor 
educational activities. Athletic fields and stadiums were 
heavily scheduled. 

A cooperative effort with municipal agencies and 
private groups has gone far in stimulating supplemen- 
tary programs and events utilizing park system re- 
sources at minimal management and operating ex- 
pense. 

Easily-accessible Ponkapoag Golf Course in Blue 
Hills Reservation became the scene of cross-country ski- 
ing instruction for individuals and groups provided by a 
professional guide service. Its initial success indicated a 
potential for expanding the sport into other MDC areas. 

A resurgence of canoeing on the Charles River went 
into its second year under the auspices of a professional 
service located at MDC Police Riverside Station in Au- 
burndale. Its rapid growth can be seen in a jump from 
4000 canoeists during 1973 to 11,019 for the 1974 sea- 
son, with a livery of 44 canoes for rental. Safety educa- 



SKATE GUARDS lend a hand to novices during gen- 
eral skating at network of 26 rinks, which are also the 
scene of plenty of hockey action. 

tion, school group trips and river ecology were among 
the services offered. Presaging further canoeing de- 
velopment, MDC acquired Needham YMCA's Red Wing 
Bay canoe rental livery including an acre of riverfront 
property, with an arrangement for YMCA management 
and plans for expanded operation. It is anticipated that 
14 locations may be developed eventually in the 30-mile 
stretch between Wellesley and the Boston Esplanade. 

Reaching toward maximum use of MDC waters, a 
sailing program was inaugurated at Mystic River Basin 
from a newly-completed boathouse on the Somerville 
shoreline, offering instruction for 500 neophyte en- 
thusiasts, mostly juniors, designed to serve the Parks 
District's northern region. 

In its third year's operation, the Pleasure Bay sailing 
program at South Boston, serving the southern area, 
grew to 1145 members, almost tripling the first season's 
turnout. A highly-diversified program reached out to 
senior citizens and retarded and blind youngsters, along 
with regattas for seniors, juniors, high schools and prep 
schools. 

On the Charles River Basin, MDC's first sailing facil- 
ity, established in 1936, was still growing steadily under 
the auspices of Community Boating, Inc. The self- 
sustaining operation swelled to 5641 senior and junior 
members, a 500 increase over 1973. Among the par- 
ticipants were 213 physical education students from 
four colleges and five secondary schools. Overnight and 
daytime harbor trips and a variety of racing competi- 
tions were among the season's events. 

Quabbin Reservoir's three fishing areas were used 
by 62,926 persons during the 1974 season, up 5% from 
the previous year. The water supply system also offers 
fishing opportunities by permit at Wachusett and Sud- 



10 




NEW FISHING PIER at Lynn Harbor draws big turnout 
of anglers, while golfing at Martin Memorial Golf Course 
in Weston and rapidly-expanding canoe facilities on 
Charles River are other heavily-used attractions of the 
Parks District, 



(Golf photo by Jack Maley. MDC) 



(Lynn Item photo by Walter Hoeyt 



bury reservoirs. Four fishing derbies were organized at 
ponds in the parks system. 

The scenic appeal of MDC's Boston Harbor islands 
drew a record number of visitors. Georges Island and its 
historic Fort Warren played host to 160,700 persons, 
nearly 20,000 above 1973 attendance, and accommo- 
dated 396 outings and 191 camping groups. Visitors en- 
joyed guided tours, picnic areas, playground and dock- 
ing facilities, indoor and outdoor outing areas, super- 
vised by Metropolitan District Police, maintenance and 
other personnel. Transportation was furnished by four 
harbor cruise boat lines and private craft. Nearby less- 
developed Lovell's Island attracted 30,000 visitors — a 
10,000 increase over last year — including 30 outings 
and 300 camping groups. Major improvements are 
slated for next season. Peddocks Island, off the Hull 
shore, was visited by 2000 persons. The island, acquired 
in 1970, is available only on a permit basis, pending de- 
velopment of public facilities. 

RECORD ATTENDANCE AT HATCH SHELL 

An outstanding array of diversified performances 
broke all attendance records at Hatch Memorial Shell, 
where an estimated 465,000 enjoyed 45 events in the 
riverfront and park setting along the Charles River Basin 
— a 50% increase over 1973. The season's repertoire 
ranged from Conductor Arthur Fiedler's traditional Es- 
planade Pops concerts, a Bach in the Basin series and 
the debut of the Boston Ballet Company's 
10-performance "Ballet on the Esplanade'' to college 



and youth music groups, choral performers and oldtime 
movies. And on July 4th, 75,000 enthralled spectators 
packed the riverfront for an unprecedented presentation 
of Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture'' by the Pops Or- 
chestra. A spectacular finale was punctuated by 105 mm 
howitzers, amplified bell ringers, church bells and 
fireworks explosions from an anchored barge, provided 
by a private sponsor. Large crowds were entertained 
also by 78 band concerts at various beaches and park 
reservations. 

Upriver, summer theater returned for the fourth sea- 
son at the outdoor amphitheater off Soldiers Field Road 
staged by the non-profit Publick Theater. In the basin, a 
new-type river cruise was instituted by a 45-foot, 
double-decked vessel, offering refreshments and nar- 
rated sightseeing. Public attention was focused for the 
third year on recreational opportunities along the 
Charles through a festival of fun events sponsored by 
the Charles River Recreational Council. 

Diminishing use of skating rinks was noted for the 
second year as attendance figures fell to 1.757.303 from 
the two million peak for the 1971-72 season The reduc- 
tion was primarily in general skating which dropped to 
757.303. a two-year decline of 258.712 Coming in the 
face of five new rinks opened in the past two seasons, 
the figures were interpreted as an indication that further 
rink construction would be tapered off The 26-nnk net- 
work was widely used, however, for boys and girls hoc- 
key, speed and figure-skating classes, school physical 
education, handicapped children and skating parties. 



11 



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CHARLES RIVER BASIN and shoreline abound in 
opportunities for recreation and relaxation, including bi- 
cycling, sailing and just plain sunning, as well as wading 
pool fun for youngsters. 



representing an attendance of about one million. Public 
skating was assigned approximately 48 hours weekly at 
each rink and rental use 52 hours for a total of 19,489 
rental hours. Free time was offered for municipally- 
sponsored figure-skating classes. 

Twenty-one rinks were utilized for off-season activity, 
with tennis moving into the forefront. Tennis instruction 
was furnished at 10 rinks by United States Sports Club. 
The structures doubled also as centers for a Boy Scout 
jamboree attended by 40,000 at six locations, day 
camps, programs sponsored by local recreation de- 
partments and neighborhood organizations, street 
hockey, basketball and even two dog shows. 

By far, MDC's most popular summer-time attraction 
is bathing at 17 ocean and four fresh-water beaches, 
drawing an estimated 15 to 20 million persons. Nineteen 
pools provided a hot weather haven for 329,395. The 
pools were used also for rehabilitation of patients at the 
Veterans Administration Hospital in West Roxbury and 
Massachusetts General Hospital, handicapped children, 
learn-to-swim classes and swim meets sponsored by 
high schools and municipal recreation departments. 



NEW JUNIOR GOLF SCHOOL 

At Ponkapoag Golf Course in Canton another youth 
activity was inaugurated — a five-day Junior Boys Golf 
School and Camp attended by 55 youngsters from 12 to 
16 years of age, sponsored by New England Profes- 
sional Golf Association and housed at Ponkapoag Out- 
door Center in Blue Hills Reservation. The course was 
also the scene of regional qualifying rounds for the Na- 




tional PGA Junior Tournament, which yielded six na- 
tional contenders. Other major tournaments were the 
31st annual New England Junior Golf Championship 
with 636 entries, believed to be the country's largest for 
juniors, the 35th annual CYO tournament for 520 con- 
testants and the third Massachusetts Public Links 
Championship in conjunction with qualifying rounds for 
national competition, producing three eligibles out of 91 
entries. 

The tennis bug has created greater demand for the 
parks system's 31 courts, leading to a successful permit 
experiment at the two new lighted courts at Charles- 
bank Park in Boston's West End, where 4082 reserva- 
tions were issued. 

Intensive use of athletic fields and three stadiums 
was also noted. At 36 diamonds, five of them flood- 
lighted, 12,000 baseball, Softball and Little League 
games were played. The stadiums were booked for a 
wide variety of events, including 100 scheduled high 
school football games, six drum and bugle corps pro- 
grams, 17 Gaelic football games, 42 rugby games, track 
meets and even two high school graduations. 

Fifty-five recreation leaders were assigned to play- 
grounds, sailing and other summer activities. 

Four museum and nature center programs focused 
on a popular tiein between education and recreation, 
aimed particularly at school systems in the Parks Dis- 
trict. Participating at the Museum of Science were 1641 
classroom groups involving 66,873 visitors who bene- 
fited from curriculum-related films, lectures and dem- 
onstrations at no cost. Free visits were also provided at 
the Children's Museum for 1452 school and community 
program groups totaling 27,635 youngsters and MDC's 
Trailside Museum in the Blue Hills welcomed 17,594. 
Ponkapoag Outdoor Center, another nature-oriented 
facility at Blue Hills, operated by Greater Boston YMCA, 
had 8202 participants of all ages for such activity as 



12 




NEW SAILING FACILITY has been inaugurared in 
Mystic River Basin, where 500 participants, mostly 
juniors, enrolled in the summer program. 

(Photo by Jack Maley. MDC) 



summer and winter camping, educational sessions, fam- 
ily week-end stays and day programs. 

The 1973-74 school year marked the end of MDC's 
school visits program at Museum of Science, now 
coalesced entirely in the State Department of Education, 
which has conducted similar visits for communities out- 
side the Parks District. Since its start 21 years ago, 
1,155,546 visits were made by schoolchildren from the 
MDC area. 

Management of Trailside Museum has been trans- 
ferred from Boston Zoological Society to Massachusetts 
Audubon Society on recommendation by the BZS. The 
popular nature center is on the verge of an expansion, 
including a new educational auditorium, landscaping 
and other improvements. Development of the former 
Army Nike base on Chickatawbut Hill for use as an en- 
vironmental education center and training classes for 
park personnel is also underway. 

Among other attendance statistics were: 

Ponkapoag's two 18-hole courses in Canton, 105.357 
rounds; Martin Memorial's 18-hole course in Weston, 
46,881. 

Zoos — Franklin Park, Boston, estimated 400.000; 
Walter D. Stone, Stoneham, estimated 400.000; Franklin 
Park Children's Zoo, 179.084; Boston Zoological 
Society's Zoomobile. 212 appearances; MDC Traveling 
Zoo, 122 appearances during summer season. 

Trailside Museum, Canton, 82,715. 

Bunker Hill Monument. 58.435. 

Blue Hills Ski Area, Canton-Milton. 30.000 skiers and 
20,000 at ski school. 

Boston Children's Theater Stagemobile. two plays at 
each of 10 locations during school vacation. 



Bird's World Sets Pace 
For New Zoo Concept 



A vision of Franklin Park Zoo of the future has taken 
tangible form by virtual completion of a dramatic "Bird s 
World'' where visitors and birdlife mingle in a free-flying 
environment. 

A forerunner of the concept for natural settings and 
unobstructed display of animals planned for the pro- 
jected African wildlife zoo. the exhibit is a first big step 
toward a renaissance of Franklin Park. 

The $2 million project has converted a dilapidated 
aviary of 1912 vintage into a completely rebuilt outdoor 
flight cage where an elevated walkway above a jungle 
gorge brings people and birds together amid trees, 
plants, waterfalls and waterways. The aviary extends 
into an adjoining three-level system of pools and natural 
waterfalls containing a wide variety of water and marsh 
birds. 

Previews of the display brought an award and 
plaudits from news media and other visitors, prior to its 
opening to the public, scheduled for July. 

The adjacent birdhouse inside a reconstructed build- 
ing was being readied for a September opening, con- 
taining displays of bird collections in five open-fronted 
natural environments of swamp, rain forest, mountain- 
side, desert and riverbank. Along with 19 mini exhibits 
explaining living habits of birdlife and special displays 
of native New England birds surrounding the birdhouse. 
the facility provides a broad educational experience for 
classroom groups as well as the public. 

The entire area has been enhanced by extensive 
landscaping, including over 5000 trees, shrubs and 
other foliage, which has won the Henry David Thoreau 
award for landscaping of municipal facilities. 

The complex is the first major joint development be- 
tween MDC and Boston Zoological Society since BZS 
assumed management of MDC zoos in 1970. The or- 
ganization also operates MDC s Children s Zoo at Frank- 
lin Park and Walter D. Stone Zoo in Stoneham 

Meanwhile, design development is neanng comple- 
tion' on the innovative, all-season, indoor-outdoor Afri- 
can wildlife exhibit — centerpiece of a 52-acre Franklin 
Park Zoo. Next step is completion of construction plans 
and specifications 

The design provides for four pavilions totaling six 
acres linked by sheltered walkways, each representing 
separate African environments consisting of tropical 
forest, bush forest, desert and plain Free-running ani- 
mals will be displayed through indoor and outdoor ex- 
hibits in natural settings grouped by homogeneous 



13 




communities separated by hidden moats. Service and 
holding areas for the exhibits will be housed along the 
perimeters of the pavilions, allowing controlled access 
of animals either to indoor or outdoor exhibit areas. An 
extensive horticultural display is an important feature of 
the facility. 

An educational master plan is being developed for 
both the casual visitor and serious student, with em- 
phasis on school children during the school year. 

Current cost estimates range up to $24 million, in- 
cluding structures, exhibit development and animals, to 
be funded by Federal grants, MDC bond issues and pri- 
vate sources. 

At the Children's Zoo, existing exhibits were given a 
face-lift and Boston's first large snake display was con- 
structed. 

Over the past three years, emphasis on professional 
staffing has moved the zoo hospital from a first aid type 
of operation to a professional preventive medicine as 
well as a therapeutic treatment facility. Other than pre- 
ventive care, hospital personnel administered medical 
treatment on 600 occasions and reared 30 baby animals 
which could not be cared for by their mothers. The hos- 
pital staff also provided Children's Zoo personnel with 
intensive training in health care of young animals. 

The animal collection at the zoos has continued its 
growth, now numbering approximately 1100. The pro- 
gram has emphasized acquisition of breeding groups or 
pairs and acquiring rare and endangered animals to 
protect species from extinction. 




BIRD'S WORLD exhibit at Franklin Park Zoo has 
been completed, offering a free-flying environment 
and mingling of visitors and birdlife. 

Boston Zoological Society's educational process has 
reached beyond zoo walls through numerous visits by 
the BZS Zoomobile to schools and other locations and 
the MDC Traveling Zoo's summer trips to parks and 
playgrounds in the Parks District. 

In anticipation of the "Bird's World" opening and the 
future African exhibit, Stone Zoo has served as a 
storehouse for stock destined for Franklin Park. With 
the bird inventory now evened out between the two 
zoos, exhibits at the Stoneham aviary and waterfowl 
pond are being redesigned for improved display. Long- 
range planning is aimed at developing the Stone Zoo 
primarily as a North and South American exhibit. 

Prospects for future revenue to expedite improve- 
ments and upgrade staffing were given a lift by the 
Legislature's action in removing the restriction on ad- 
mission charges at Franklin Park. This had been specifi- 
cally barred by 1957 legislation transferring the zoo 
from the City of Boston to MDC. When fees are estab- 
lished, it is expected that a similar arrangement will also 
apply to Stone Zoo. 

The new legislation specifies that when an admission 
is imposed the zoo will be open free of charge "for a 
reasonable period of time each day" and there will be 
no charge for scheduled school groups from the MDC 
Parks District. It also requires half price for persons 65 
years of age and older and for members of the armed 
services during hours when admission fees apply. A 
charge is made only at the Children's Zoo presently. Zoo 
officials believe an admission fee would not only help to 
finance improvements but also increase control and re- 
duce vandalism. 



14 




DESCRIPTIVE SIGNS have been erected at various 
historic sites scattered through Parks District, such as 
one above. (See inside front cover for photos of major 
historic facilities.) 





HISTORIC GEORGES ISLAND seawall and gun em- 
placements have been reconstructed, utilizing a heli- 
copter to transport cement from the mainland. 

(Photos by Tom Reilly. MDC) 



Historic Sites Being Improved 
For Bicentennial Observance 



Historic sites in the parks system have been a focus 
of activity in preparation for the Bicentennial obser- 
vance. 

As a principal attraction for the celebration, Bunker 
Hill Battlefield and Monument has been given particular 
attention, featuring an electronic system which relates 
the story of the momentous events of June 17, 1775, 
through wireless headsets. The narration is told in simu- 
lated voices of Colonial and British officers while vis- 
itors view locations associated with the battle. An ad- 
mission fee covers its installation and operation by a 
private group. In commemoration of its origin at Bunker 
Hill, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers will join MDC in 
improving and refurbishing facilities at the monument, 
supplementing a program of landscaping and new ex- 
hibits in the lodge at the monument base. 

A similar electronic system is slated for Fort Warren 
on Georges Island in Boston Harbor, tracing its role in 
defending the harbor in all American wars and use as a 
Civil War prison for Confederate civil and military per- 
sonnel. Descriptive signs designed by staff personnel 
have been installed at 18 of the fort's points of interest. 
A $593,000 reconstruction job on the island seawall and 
old gun emplacements was in progress, utilizing an un- 
usual technique of transporting cement from the main- 
land by helicopter. 

Planning is going forward on restoring Fort Inde- 
pendence at Castle Island, South Boston, where fortifi- 



cations were first erected in 1634 and rebuilt at least 
four times. One of the forts was designed by Paul 
Revere in 1778 after destruction by the British upon 
their evacuation of Boston in 1776. The magnitude of 
the restoration project may delay its opening to the pub- 
lic for the Bicentennial period. Meanwhile, an ar- 
cheological dig has uncovered artifacts of historic in- 
terest, such as coins, buttons, cannon balls and pottery. 

An extensive structural and landscape program has 
embellished the Quincy Homestead in Quincy. child- 
hood home of Dorothy Quincy. who married John Han- 
cock in 1775. The structure, built in the 1680 s and en- 
larged in the early 18th century, is furnished and ad- 
ministered by the National Society of Colonial Dames. 

In another Bicentennial activity, descriptive signs 
have been erected at 15 historic sites within the Parks 
District. 

Prospective additions to MDC s historic property are 
contained in the 179-acre Sawmill Brook Valley area in 
West Roxbury s Charles River corridor for which funds 
have been authorized for conservation and park pur- 
poses. Within the tract is Brook Farm, scene of a social 
experiment in the 1840 s by a small commune of Trans- 
cendentalists. It adjoins Pulpit Rock, where Rev. John 
Elliot brought Christian teachings to native Indians in 
the mid-17th century as The Apostle to the Indians 
Both sites have been registered as a National Historic 
Landmark. 

Financing has been made available also for restora- 
tion of the old Incline and Granite Railways in Quincy. 
the nation s first commercial rail line, which was used to 
transport stone for Bunker Hill Monument in 1826 



15 



Clean-Water Projects Improving Harbor, Rivers 



Significant progress toward clean water goals has 
been achieved in Boston Harbor and its tributaries dur- 
ing 1974, while a broad-scale study of pollution abate- 
ment solutions in the Metropolitan Sewerage District 
through the year 2050 is nearing its half-way point. 

A milestone was marked by the shut-down of the last 
remaining MDC sewer line continuously discharging 
raw sewage into the harbor. A daily flow of 750,000 gal- 
lons from Quincy's Squantum section has been diverted 
from the City of Boston's Moon Island outlet by activa- 
tion of the new Squantum Force Main, a $2.3 million link 
to the MDC Nut Island Sewage Treatment Plant in 
Quincy Bay. 

Another important harbor program — rehabilitation 
of nearly 200 defective Boston and Chelsea tidegates — 
is well advanced and scheduled for completion next 
year at a cost of $1 million. Their condition has caused 
flushing of sewage into the harbor on each tide cycle 
and intrusion of millions of gallons of salt water into 
municipal sewer lines daily, adding to the flow to the 
Deer Island treatment system and adversely affecting its 
operation. 

A solution to the problem of sludge disposal at Deer 
Island and Nut Island plants, now discharged at outfalls 
in the outer harbor, points toward an incineration 
method, incorporating a waste heat recovery system to 
generate electric power. A consultant study and in- 
house review of alternatives has concluded that inciner- 
ation was the most practical from the viewpoint of cost 
benefit and environmental acceptability. However, this 
major project may be held in abeyance pending comple- 



1 



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[■Mr - 




DEER ISLAND LABORATORY is a key element of 
treatment plant for testing round-the-clock samples of in- 
fluent and effluent to assure proper treatment standards. 

tion of all requirements of the National Environmental 
Policy Act. 

These are among the latest steps in MDC's program 
for upgrading the quality of Boston Harbor, where con- 
siderable improvement has already been noted follow- 
ing the 1968 opening of the huge Deer Island primary 
treatment facility, a keystone of MDC's sewerage sys- 
tem. The impact has included reopening of Winthrop 
town beaches and nearby shellfish areas, as well as a 
substantial drop in coliform concentrations near Deer Is- 
land outfall and in the harbor water's bacterial level. 



TV Camera Goes Underground 
For Sewer System Inspection 

A TV camera with built-in lighting has gone 
underground to probe 227 miles of MDC's sewer 
line system for defects, infiltration, illegal connec- 
tions and pinpointing potential trouble spots. 

With a mobile trailer, a 1000-foot cable and a 
three-man crew, the newly-purchased $18,000 ap- 
paratus will improve efficiency by spotting 
weakened sewer lines and providing preventive 
maintenance. The equipment will also enable view- 
ing of small diameter pipes and other lines that 
had been impossible to inspect. 



NEW WASTEWATER TECHNIQUES 

In the offing is upgrading primary treatment at Deer 
Island and Nut Island to secondary treatment as re- 
quired by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
Amendments of 1972. This change is one of the major 
elements in the long-range, engineering-management 
wastewater study of the Boston Harbor-Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Metropolitan Area (EMMA). The Metropolitan 
Sewerage District's 43 cities and towns are among 109 
municipalities covered by the study. 

EMMA's far-reaching scope is considering advanced 
treatment techniques, land disposal, regional inland 
satellite plants which would augment low river flow with 
highly-treated, recovered effluent; re-use and reclama- 
tion. Other topics are industrial waste, geographical 
limits of sewerage systems, "fair share" user charges 



16 




DEER ISLAND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT alleviating pollution in Boston Harbor consists of (1) administration 
building and laboratory, (2) pumping station, (3) power plant, (4) storage sphere f or sewage gas used to operate plant, 
(5) sludge digestion tanks, (6) sludge and scum thickening tanks, (7) sedimentation and settling tanks, (8) chlorine 
building and (9) Winthrop Terminal headworks. Not shown are pumping station to supply cooling water for equip- 
ment, water storage reservoir and garage. 



for communities and industry, administrative structures, 
population projections, construction priorities and 
financing. 

The wastewater study is being conducted by a Tech- 
nical Subcommittee headed by MDC. Participants are 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency, Metropolitan Area Planning Council and 
the Commonwealth's Division of Water Pollution Con- 
trol, Department of Public Health and Office of State 
Planning. A Citizens Committee serves as advisor. 
Coordination and management are provided by MDC s 
Environmental Planning Office. 

Augmenting the study objectives and harbor im- 
provements are pollution abatement projects on the 
Charles and Mystic rivers which will also reduce influx 
of polluted flow into the harbor. 

Pollution in the Charles is caused by combined sew- 
age and stormwater overflowing from sewer lines during 
heavy runoff periods, industrial wastes, non-point 
sources such as urban and rural runoff, landfills, septic 
tanks and an accumulation of entrapped harbor salt 
water which has entered the lower basin through the 
66-year-old Charles River Dam. 

In combating these problems. MDC has built many 



miles of interceptor relief lines along river shores to ex- 
pand the system s capacity and alleviate combined over- 
flows. Innovative instream treatment methods are also 
being developed and evaluated to deal with other pol- 
lutant sources. 

Overflows are being substantially reduced by a large 
North Charles relief sewer in Cambridge at an estimated 
$13.2 million cost Nearing completion is the third of a 
four-phased project which will stretch three miles from 
the vicinity of Mt. Auburn Hospital to Main Street The 
sewer line, with pipes as big as 8 1 2 feet in diameter, will 
enlarge existing capacity carrying wastewater to Deer Is- 
land and also tie in with the new Cottage Farm Storm- 
water Treatment Station near B.U. Bridge. 

The Cottage Farm prototype plant is an advanced 
method of treating overflows of combined sewage and 
stormwater from the North and South Charles and 
Brookline relief sewers, which has been in operation for 
its third year. The process provides for screening, set- 
tling and chlonnation before discharging effluent from 
holding tanks into the nver and the disposal of pollutant 
solids into sewer lines for treatment at Deer Island The 
facility has been activated during storms 23 times in 
1974 and processed 137 million gallons 



17 



Canoeists Join Volunteer Effort 
In Litter Cleanup Programs 

A unique gimmick has enlisted thousands of 
canoeists in the task of tidying the Charles River. 
Simply by turning in a plastic bag of litter a $1 re- 
fund from the canoe rental fee is allowed by 
Charles River Canoe Service located at MDC's 
police sub-station in Auburndale. 

The inducement has yielded tires, shopping 
carts and even a 60-pound iron valve, all taken 
from the river bottom. Floating sandwich bags, 
beer cans and plastic containers were skimmed 
from the surface and turned in for disposal. 

Annual volunteer drives to clean up off-season 
accumulation of litter have continued effectively at 
waterways, park reservations and beaches in 
cooperation with MDC. A spokesman for Charles 
River Watershed Association, which coordinated 
the river cleanup, reported the litter problem di- 
minishes each year, indicating the volunteer ef- 
forts "have reminded people not to use the river as 
a dump." 

A similar installation is being designed for the down- 
stream section of the basin in the estuary area where 
the new Charles River Dam is under construction near 
the Boston & Maine Railroad's North Station. 

Besides the storm detention-chlorination station, 
other projects under design for the estuary area are 
large conduits on the Boston and Cambridge shorelines 
to carry combined overflows to the station for treatment 
and then discharge to tidewater beyond the new dam 
site. 

Work began in the spring on the multi-purpose dam 
which will incorporate six large pumps for flood control, 
three locks for commercial and pleasure craft and a fish 
ladder to permit access of anadromous fish to the river's 
upper reaches. The $41 million project is being built by 
the U.S. Corps of Engineers in cooperation with MDC, 
which contributes $8.7 million toward the cost. 

When the facility becomes operational by. 1978, it will 
be important to pollution control by greatly reducing 
salt water intrusion into the basin. Methods of removing 
the vast pool of accumulated stagnant salt water on the 
basin bottom are being developed. The saline layer, de- 
void of oxygen and highly-polluted, remains in stratified 
form, preventing vertical mixing and aeration and sti- 
fling fish and plant life. 

Meanwhile, innovative instream cleanup methods for 
the Charles River are being tested or under considera- 
tion. 




NEW CHARLES RIVER DAM is being built as a multi- 
purpose facility with provisions for flood control, improv- 
ing water quality, relieving navigation congestion and 
providing a fishway for up-river access. Cofferdam has 
been completed, preparatory to pumping out water for a 
dry structural construction site. (Photo by jack Maiey, mdc> 

The Storrow Lagoon pilot plant went into its second 
summer of testing, utilizing a chemical method for re- 
moval of color and pollution. Its results will determine 
the feasibility of a full-scale plant to treat up-river flow 
into the basin. 

Another experiment using aeration equipment for 
localized treatment was started at Havey Beach in West 
Roxbury during the summer of 1974, with the possibility 
of more installations along the river basin, if it is found 
effective. 

Under review, also, is a proposed floating treatment 
plant using a magnetic process to remove solids, bac- 
teria and color. 

In the Mystic River Basin a $1.6 million pollution con- 
trol installation was activated to deal with overflows of 
stormwater and sewage discharging from Somerville's 
combined sewerage system. The facilities incorporated 
a marginal conduit to carry the flow to tidewater below 
the Amelia Earhart Dam and a pre-treatment and chlori- 
nation station. The treatment process features automa- 
tic controls and a new-type hypochlorite generator for 
producing a chlorine solution for disinfection. 

Further pollution relief in the basin came from a 
previously-completed dual-purpose construction job in 
Maiden. This was a $7.1 million flood-control project 
and an adjoining interceptor trunk sewer on Saugus 
Branch Brook, a tributary of Maiden River which in turn 
empties into the basin. 



18 




PUMPING STATION in Revere's Beachmont section is 
under construction, designed to alleviate flooding during 
storms and high tide, such as this Broadsound Avenue 
scene where residents were evacuated by MDC Police in 
northeast storm of February 1972. 

{United Press International photo) 



Dredging has begun under a $480,000 contract at 
Fore River between North Weymouth and Quincy, in 
which the existing channel over a 48-inch siphon must 
be lowered to accommodate larger shipping vessels. A 
second sewer line will be installed to accommodate 
growth and demands of service for South Shore com- 
munities. 

A pilot inspection program concerning industrial 
adherence to MDC rules and regulations and meeting 
Federal requirements has been started following a ques- 
tionnaire survey of industries in the Sewerage District. 
Twenty-five plants where violations were found have 
now begun pre-treating, improving pre-treatment 
facilities and/or modifying systems to comply with stan- 
dards. 

Flood control projects are also underway, high- 
lighted by a $5.6 million pumping station at Amelia 
Earhart Dam. The installation is designed to increase 
the dam's limited capacity to lower the Mystic and Mai- 
den rivers quickly in the event of major storms, espe- 
cially during high tides. A fish ladder is being included 
to facilitate passage to the newly-created fresh water 
basin upstream from the dam. 

In Quincy, an $827,000 contract has been awarded 
for dredging Black's Creek and flood control culvert 
work affecting Furnace Brook Parkway and Southern 
Artery areas, as well as improving boating opportunities. 

A trouble spot in Revere is being corrected by con- 
struction of a $417,000 pumping station on Broad 
Sound Avenue, where storms and high tides have 
caused heavy damage in recent years. 



Growing Traffic, Safety Demands 
Pose Roadway System Problems 



Safe, smooth movement of ever-growing Metropoli- 
tan Boston traffic and enhancing the district s parkway 
system are major MDC objectives. 

These goals are vital to the area's motoring and 
commuting public, for MDC is responsible for patrol and 
maintenance of 168 miles of roadway, including most of 
the main routes within Route 128. Metropolitan District 
Police also patrol the Northeast Expressway. Central Ar- 
tery and Southeast Expressway, which are owned and 
maintained by the State Department of Public Works. 

Adequate financing has been a serious problem in 
recent years to meet a pressing need for improving 
thoroughfares, upgrading parkway aesthetics, rebuild- 
ing weakened bridges and updating outmoded lighting 
systems, some of them installed over a half-century ago. 
A $9.2 allocation from state highway bond funds was au- 
thorized by 1974 legislation but much more funding is 
required to cover necessary construction. 

A cooperative effort with the State Department of 
Public Works (DPW) has been developed to tap Federal 
funds for some projects. Replacement of the worn-out. 
unsafe Prison Point Bridge between East Cambridge 
and Charlestown was completed in June under this ar- 
rangement. The $3.9 structure — renamed for the late 
Judge John F. Gilmore — was designed by MDC and 
built by DPW. with 100°o Federal reimbursement under a 
railroad bridge replacement program. 

Another joint project with Federal funding is in a 
focal area of Morrissey Boulevard, the gateway to the 
new University of Massachusetts-Boston campus at 
Columbia Point. Dorchester. Here, a cooperative effort 
is underway with DPW and the City of Boston for S1 mill- 
ion in improvements at a dozen intersections, involving 
coordinated signals for smoother traffic flow and pedes- 
trian safety. In this area. MDC has completed replace- 
ment of the old Patten s Cove culvert with a stronger, 
modern structure under the boulevard at a cost of 
$572,000. 

Efforts to enhance parkways continued with projects 
along the Charles River. Quincy Shore Drive. Blue Hills 
Reservation and further progress in an ambitious tree- 
planting program. 

The scenic Charles River system was given a 
$685,000 uplift by a two-mile resurfacing and recon- 
struction program on Storrow Drive and Soldiers Field 
Road in Boston, including median strip improvements 
and a new-type rustic guard rail. Upnver. a three-fifths 
of a mile section of Greenough Boulevard on the Water- 
town shoreline was rebuilt at a cost of $322,000 The 



19 



two-lane parkway incorporated a bicycle path as part of 
the river's bikeway system, vehicle turnouts for river 
viewing, benches, walking path and extensive tree plant- 
ing. 

At Quincy Shore Drive, reconstruction work is 
scheduled to start soon on a 3000-foot stretch, with pro- 
visions for a median strip, sidewalk, bicycle path and 
pedestrian lights, as part of a multi-purpose roadway 
and recreation development costing $1 million. 

Aesthetic and safety improvements were constructed 
in a $118,000 program for Blue Hills Reservation park- 
ways which provided for restoration of roadway edges, 
erosion control and grass and tree planting. 

Rundown and overburdened bridges continue to 
present costly and vital problems of replacement or 
major reconstruction. Pending available financing, con- 
siderable emergency work has been done to correct un- 
safe conditions and keep bridges in service, at the ex- 
pense of traffic inconvenience, particularly for heavy 
vehicles. 

Some of these structures are of horse and buggy vin- 
tage and others were built for pleasure vehicles on 
parkways and later utilized for general traffic and truck- 
ing in excess of design capacity. Preliminary steps to in- 
itiate solutions have been taken, preparatory to a $17.5 
million construction program. 

The heavily-used Wellington Bridge carrying Route 
28-Fellsway traffic has been beset with problems requir- 
ing emergency repairs and causing traffic disruption 
and now faces rebuilding. The General Lawrence Bridge 
on Veterans Memorial Parkway, Medford, is in a similar 
situation. At the nearby Woods Memorial Bridge on Re- 
vere Beach Parkway, Everett-Medford, a $326,000 re- 
construction contract was awarded to restore the struc- 
ture to normal use. 

Other large structures requiring replacement, new 
super-structures or major work include Harvard Bridge 
over Charles River, Columbia Road Bridge in Dorches- 
ter, two railroad bridges on Alewife Brook Parkway in 
Cambridge, Dorchester Bay Bridge and a McGrath 
Highway bridge in Somerville. It is anticipated that some 
of these projects will be undertaken by DPW with Fed- 
eral financial assistance. 

As key elements of roadway safety, traffic lights and 
street lighting require extensive updating. Design work 
on 25 traffic signal locations is approximately 75% com- 
plete. A modernized lighting system was scheduled for 
activation in a few months on Alewife Brook Parkway, 
between Massachusetts Avenue and Fresh Pond Park- 
way Circle, Cambridge. A similar project on Hammond 
Pond Parkway, Newton-Brookline, was due to start in 
the fall and preliminary underground work has been 
done in a section of VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, and 
in the Charles River Esplanade, Boston. 



Major Police Revamping Creates 
Centralized Management System 



A multi-phased revamping of the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict Police structure moved forward during 1974, with 
emphasis on centralizing command and management 
functions. 

Implementing a Federally-financed management 
study submitted in 1973, two bureaus for Field Opera- 
tions and Support were established, each headed by a 
deputy superintendent. A Traffic Unit was formed under 
command of a captain and the Staff-lnspections-lnternal 
Affairs assignment was taken over by another captain. A 
Federal grant funded the services of a police planner to 
develop a planning and research unit. 

In another major change, the traditional seven dis- 
tricts have been abolished in favor of area-wide pla- 
toons for each of three shifts, commanded by captains 
serving as watch commanders. Other captains were 
utilized to expand management resources at headquar- 
ters. 

For the day shift, administrative responsibility was 
divided geographically into the original seven districts, 
now called stations. Operations on the day shift at sta- 
tions are under a headquarters watch commander as- 
sisted by an administrative lieutenant at each station. 
Direct supervision of police officers is vested in 
sergeant supervisors. 

On night shifts, two lieutenants were assigned to 
cover larger areas as field commanders available for re- 



Large-Scale Police Response 
Provides Aid in Emergencies 

Rapid mobilization of manpower for emer- 
gency services was commonplace for Metropolitan 
Police during the year, highlighted by the disas- 
trous Chelsea fire of October 14, 1973. A 51-man 
contingent and 20 vehicles were deployed for seal- 
ing off the city from sightseers, crowd control, 
looting arrests and warning residents to evacuate. 

Among other emergencies requiring large- 
scale response were the crash of a jet-liner at 
Logan Airport, the Mystic Bridge collapse, an in- 
mate rampage at Walpole State Prison, outbreaks 
at Deer Island House of Correction and serious 
disturbances in various communities of the Parks 
District. 



20 




VARIED FUNCTIONS are performed by MDC Police, 
among them underwater recovery, tactical force and 
crowd control and expressway patrol. 

(Expressway photo by Officer E. J O'Neill) 



sponse to major incidents, conferences with sergeant 
supervisors and for special investigations. This ar- 
rangement provides field command for the captain- 
watch commander, in addition to being mobile himself. 

For the first time in Metropolitan Police history, the 
command structure represents a coordinated effort for 
total service. 

In performing its mission of law enforcement and se- 
curity for widespread park, sewerage and water proper- 
ties, and protection of lives and safety of millions using 
recreation facilities and 187 miles of expressways and 
roadways, the 643-man police force has carried a di- 
verse and heavy work load as reflected in statistics for 
1974. 

Sick and injured persons have been transported to 
hospitals on more than 1600 occasions, many of them 
involved in 4000 motor vehicle accidents. Selective en- 
forcement activity aimed at high accident locations con- 
tributed to issuance of 17,000 citations. Over 4000 
crimes were investigated. Property recovered was val- 
ued at $2,450,000, including 1500 stolen vehicles. As- 
sistance to the general public was provided on 12.000 
occasions, ranging from helping stranded motorists to 
looking for lost children. 

Its role as a back-up force for other police depart- 
ments was underscored by a record of 1300 assists, in- 
cluding many large-scale mobilizations for emergencies. 
Specialized services have been frequently furnished, 
particularly undercover narcotic officers, tactical force 
and the K-9, scuba, bomb and underwater recovery 




units. Two narcotic investigators are participating in the 
new Federally-financed, inter-agency unit cracking 
down on diversion and illegal sale of drugs by whole- 
salers, doctors and druggists. Two others are assigned 
to the Metropolitan Enforcement Group s North Shore 
unit, another inter-agency narcotic agency. 

Growing use of MDC s harbor islands and Charles 
and Mystic rivers has made increasing demands on boat 
patrols Nearly 200.000 visitors voyaged to Georges. 
Lovell s and Peddocks during the 1974 season, creating 
considerable police activity on the islands and harbor 
waters. Six officers and three trainees, manning two 
patrol boats, provided a great variety of services, includ- 
ing rescue of 25 persons. 50 assists. 20 transported to 
hospitals. 26 boat searches. 17 boat tows, six recovered 
crafts and 110 inspections. 



21 



How MDC Organization Delivers Regional Services 



The Metropolitan District Commission's concept is 
based on the belief that communities in Metropolitan 
Boston can derive greater benefits with more efficiency 
and lower costs through regional operation of parks, 
water and sewerage systems. 

It has become increasingly evident that many facets 
of urban life and the environment can be developed and 
administered most effectively without regard for munic- 
ipal boundaries. 

This trend originated in 1889 with the creation of the 
Metropolitan Sewerage Commission as the nation's first 
legally-constituted metropolitan district. Then came the 
Metropolitan Parks District in 1893 and the Metropolitan 
Water Board in 1895. The three agencies were consoli- 
dated into the Metropolitan District Commission in 1919 
for greater efficiency and economy. 

Operations are governed by a five-member Commis- 
sion appointed by the Governor. A Commissioner serves 
as full-time executive and administrative head of the 
agency. The Commissioner is joined by four part-time 
Associate Commissioners at weekly meetings in setting 
policy, approving contracts and participating in deci- 
sions on departmental operations. The Commissioner 
and Associate Commissioners each have an equal vote, 
except that "concurrence of the Commissioner and of 
not less than two Associate Commissioners shall be re- 
quired for the execution of contracts and of such other 
official actions of the Commission as may be required 
by law." 

The Reorganization Act of 1969 establishing a 
cabinet system placed MDC under the jurisdiction of the 
Executive Office of Environmental Affairs. 

As a department of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, MDC must obtain approval of its operating 
budget and bond issues for capital construction from 
the Governor and Legislature. 

To keep cities and towns informed about activities, 
public hearings are required annually for municipal offi- 
cials in the Parks, Sewerage and Water Districts regard- 
ing improvements, extensions, new facilities and finan- 
cial data. 

A wide-ranging reorganization was undertaken in 
1974, reassigning functions, streamlining services, 
creating new divisions and transferring a considerable 
number of personnel. 

There are now six administrative or staff units: 
Commission Secretary, General Counsel, 
Commissioner's Office, Special Projects and two new 
divisions of Administrative Services and Central Serv- 
ices, both reporting to an Executive Assistant for Fi- 



nance and Administration. A new in-house Land Board 
has been created to establish priorities for land acquisi- 
tion and submit recommendations to the Commission 
for land use, sales, parks development and related mat- 
ters. 

Departmental operations are performed by eight di- 
visions: Construction Engineering, Sewerage, Water, 
Parks, Parks Engineering, Police and two offices ele- 
vated to divisional status — Environmental Planning and 
Environmental Quality, reflecting emphasis on the envi- 
ronment. These divisions report to the department's 
chief engineer. 

A number of internal changes were also made within 
divisions. 

Parks Engineering Division's functions now deal 
primarily with new construction or major rehabilitation 
of recreation facilities and roadway work, while other 
large jobs have been assigned to the department's Con- 
struction Engineering Division. Both divisions are as- 
sociated administratively under the Chief Construction 
Engineer in order to centralize engineering services. As 
part of the shift, some Parks Engineering personnel 
have been assigned to a new maintenance engineering 
section within the Parks Division. 

The Parks District has been split into four regions, 
each headed by a superintendent with complete opera- 
tional responsibility for pools, rinks, parks and other 
recreation facilities. A functional organization, rather 
than geographical, has been set up for the Recreation 
Section. 

A police reorganization aimed at centralizing com- 
mand and management functions has resulted in all dis- 
trict captains being assigned to headquarters. Lieuten- 
ants were placed in charge of the seven stations, di- 
rected by captains serving as watch commanders at 
headquarters round-the-clock. 

The new Administrative Services Division has re- 
sponsibility for personnel and labor relations, data 
processing, budget, bookkeeping and payroll. 

Major support services have been assigned to the 
newly-activated Central Services Division. These include 
purchase and maintenance of motorized equipment, 
bulk purchase of supplies, sign production, mainte- 
nance of MDC headquarters building, police stations 
and Commission-owned homes and acquiring special 
equipment for emergency operations. A centralized 
facility is being planned to house a supply distribution 
center, motor vehicle maintenance and other services. 

All legal aspects of the agency's functions are super- 
vised by the Office of General Counsel, such as drafting 



22 



legal opinions, contracts, proposed legislation, direc- 
tives and rules and regulations, dealing with public bid- 
ding procedure, conducting or participating in quasi- 
judicial hearings in the areas of personnel, labor rela- 
tions and police administration, and advising the Com- 
mission on various questions of law. 

The legal process of land takings, easements and 
conveyances is performed by the Right of Way Section 
for recreational, flood control, sewerage and water sup- 
ply purposes. Permits, easements, deeds and other 
types of instruments are also processed, along with 
maintaining and updating an inventory of MDC land. 
The section has an enforcement unit which deals with 
encroachment on MDC lands, pollution of rivers and 
streams and other similar violations. 

An in-house Project Analysis Board reviews pro- 
posed projects and submits recommendations to the 
Commission. 

A Planning Section is primarily concerned with park 
and recreational development, roadway system im- 
provements, landscaping and open space acquisition. 
The Financial Office operates a data-processing unit for 
payroll and other departmental uses, processes all re- 
ceipts and disbursements, maintains fiscal records and 
serves as the department's accounting office. Interviews 
and job placement functions are handled by a Personnel 
Office, which also negotiates collective bargaining 
agreements, maintains personnel records, co-ordinates 
enrollment in training courses and conducts an al- 
coholic rehabilitation program. A reference library has 
been established as a source of historical data, publica- 
tions, reports and other information. 

OPERATING DIVISIONS 

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 

The Construction Engineering Division is responsi- 
ble for planning, engineering and supervising construc- 
tion of facilities for the Water and Sewerage divisions, 
flood control and some Parks District projects. The 
completed facilities are turned over to the operating di- 
visions for maintenance and operation. 

Ten new contracts amounting to $5.9 million were 
awarded during fiscal 1974. In addition, work was still in 
progress or projects were completed totaling $37.4 mil- 
lion for 14 contracts. 

The contracts in effect in 1974 totalied $19.3 for 
water supply, $12.6 million for sewage disposal and 
$11.4 million for drainage and flood control. 

Purchase requisitions for equipment, machinery and 
units for new construction valued at $1.7 million were 
issued, including three diesel pumping units for the 
Amelia Earhart pumping station on the Mystic River 
Basin. 

Additionally, structural work was started on the new 
Charles River Dam under a $35 million contract as a 



joint venture between MDC and the Army Corps of 
Engineers, which is supervising the project. 

Other divisional engineering activities consisted of 
land surveys, hydraulic investigations of water and 
sewer lines; river hydraulics, materials testing, water 
and sewage analysis, photographic work and aerial 
photography, architectural services, landscaping, park 
and recreational developments: legal assistance, prep- 
aration of contracts, review and selection of consultant 
submittals, and participation on committees for land 
acquisition, solid waste, water resources, environmental 
impacts, water quality and project analyses. 

PARKS ENGINEERING 

Functions of the Parks Engineering Division include 
designing, engineering services, contract document 
preparation and supervision of new construction and 
major repairs of park and recreation facilities, roadways, 
bridges, drawbridges and locks, street lighting and traf- 
fic controls. 

Upon completion, new facilities come under the 
jurisdiction of the Parks Division for operating and 
routine maintenance. 

Eighty-four contracts were awarded, in progress or 
completed at a cost of $10.1 million. 

WATER 

The purpose of the Water Division is to furnish pure 
water to local distribution systems of communities in 
the Metropolitan Water District and such other cities 
and towns as can be reasonably supplied. 

Twenty-five communities receive their entire water 
supply and seven a partial supply, with an area of 309 
square miles and 1.874.000 population. The City of 
Woburn (pop. 37.406) was admitted as the 33rd member 
in 1972 as a partial user, but will not be linked to the 
system until completion of a new pipeline and pumping 
facilities. The Town of Wellesley (pop. 28.051). which 
became the 34th member in 1974. has a readiness to 
serve " agreement and plans to rely on its own supply for 
the present. Ten communities in Central Massachusetts 
located near MDC reservoirs and aqueducts are sup- 
plied in whole or in part under special agreements. 

The Water Districts sources are the Quabbm. 
Wachusett and Sudbury watersheds and the runoff of 
the Ware River watershed during certain periods. Stor- 
age reservoirs on these watersheds have a capacity of 
495 billion gallons, principally at Quabbm Reservoir with 
its capacity of 412 billion gallons and Wachusett s 67 
billion gallons. However. Quabbm has not reached 
capacity since 1961. the beginning of a six-year drought 
which lowered the reservoir to 45% of maximum eleva- 
tion. Its 1974 high level was 93 t ; 

The water supply is delivered to Metropolitan Boston 
through 121 miles of aqueducts and distributed via ap- 



23 



proximately 250 miles of pipelines, mostly by gravity 
flow. 

Facilities under control of the Water Division include 
six storage reservoirs with 467 square miles of tributary 
watershed, a water surface of 30,000 acres, four hydro- 
electric power stations, 16 miles of high tension power 
transmission lines, 12 distribution pumping stations to 
service high elevations and 16 distribution reservoirs 
with a capacity of 3.1 billion gallons. 

Eighteen construction contracts were in effect dur- 
ing fiscal 1974 for a total of $1,526,000, including a 
$1,373,000 pipeline linking the system with Woburn, 
scheduled for completion in a few months. The other 
work dealt with various maintenance and repair re- 
quirements. 

SEWERAGE 

An intricate sewerage and treatment system is under 
the jurisdiction of the Sewerage Division. Its vast sew- 
age collection and pollution abatement functions re- 
quire maintenance and operation of 12 pumping sta- 
tions, two treatment plants, four pre-treatment head- 
works, a detention and chlorination station for com- 
bined stormwater and sewage overflows along Charles 
River Basin, a pre-treatment and chlorination station for 
combined overflows at Mystic River Basin and 227 miles 
of trunk sewers. 

Forty-three cities and towns covering 407 square 
miles, with 2,219,000 inhabitants, are members of the 
Sewerage District. Wastewater flows through 5047 miles 
of local sewers connected to MDC trunk lines at 1778 
locations, an increase of 67 miles over the previous 
year. The municipal lines link 393,977 individual connec- 
tions with the MDC system, an increase of 2528 in the 
past year. 

Average daily sewage load was 438 million gallons 
and the 24-hour maximum flow was 683 mgd passing 
through primary treatment and chlorination at Deer Is- 
land and Nut Island plants before a discharge via out- 
falls into outer Boston Harbor. The process provides 
screening and grit removal, pre-cnlorination, pre- 
aeration, primary sedimentation and post chlorination. 
Raw sludge is treated by thickening and high rate diges- 
tion prior to discharge. 

There were nine contracts awarded by the division or 
in force during fiscal 1974 totaling $624,216, including a 
$480,000 contract for dredging over a 48-inch pipe 
siphon at Weymouth-Fore River to accommodate larger 
shipping vessels. Other work involved maintenance and 
repair requirements. 

PARKS 

The Parks Division was formed in 1970 by combining 
operation and maintenance of park reservations, recrea- 
tion facilities and roadways with the Recreation Section. 
Operation of locks and drawbridges was transferred 



subsequently to this agency from the Parks Engineering 
Division. 

Now the largest division in MDC, Parks has respon- 
sibility for 14,332 acres of parkland, including five major 
reservations, as well as 17 miles of beaches, 26 skating 
rinks, 19 swimming pools, three 18-hole golf courses, 
three harbor islands, 168 miles of roadway and a wide 
variety of other recreation facilities and parks. The divi- 
sion also has administrative and maintenance responsi- 
bility for the Franklin Park and Stone zoos. 

POLICE 

Primary mission of the Police Division is protection 
of MDC property and people using its facilities and pa- 
trol of 168 miles of MDC roadways and 18 miles of the 
Northeast, Southeast and Central Artery expressways, 
within Suffolk County, which are maintained by the 
State Department of Public Works. The division also has 
full police powers in any community where MDC has 
property. 

Its broad responsibility for law enforcement at park- 
lands, waterways, harbor islands and roadways requires 
highly-diversified functions and equipment. Among 
them are K-9, scuba, detective, bomb disposal and nar- 
cotic units, a tactical force, regional police academy, 
patrol boats, mounted policemen, breathalyzers, radar 
and other highway safety and enforcement devices. 

MDC Police plays an important role in assisting local 
police departments in certain contingencies, particularly 
those requiring specialized training, equipment and 
manpower. 

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING 

Responsibility for a wide range of environmental 
concerns has been assigned to the Environmental Plan- 
ning Division. The agency prepares environmental im- 
pact reports and assessments, as required by the Fed- 
eral and State Environmental Policy Acts, and reviews 
similar reports by other agencies affecting MDC 
facilities. Other services include land use planning and 
management of consultant contracts pertaining to pol- 
lution control programs. 

Currently, the division is coordinating and managing 
the wastewater study for the Eastern Massachusetts 
Metropolitan Area in conjunction with the Army Corps 
of Engineers. 

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Specialized services dealing with environmental 
problems affecting the air, land and water are furnished 
by the Environmental Quality Division. Its primary func- 
tions are to monitor the environmental quality of areas 
under MDC jurisdiction, advise other divisions on en- 
vironmental matters and manage contracts whose pri- 
mary purpose is to improve environmental quality. 



24 



Assessments Primary Source of MDC Financing 



As a regional public agency, the Metropolitan District 
Commission is financed primarily by assessments on 54 
communities which are members of one or more of its 3 
districts. 

Additional money comes from the State Highway 
Fund, State General Fund, state allocations for certain 
flood control projects and miscellaneous revenue such 
as fees, rentals, licenses, permits, fines, penalties, sales, 
Federal reimbursements or grants, etc. 

The operating budget and bond issues for capital 
construction are subject to approval by the Legislature 
and Governor. 

Principal financing sources for the three districts are 
the following: 

PARKS — Recreational capital construction by bond 
issues, amortized by assessments based on property tax 
valuations of communities in the district; maintenance 
of boulevards and reservations and police costs by 60% 
from the State Highway Fund, 1% from the State's Gen- 
eral Fund and 39% by member cities and towns with 
one-third based on population and two-thirds on valua- 
tion; highway and bridge construction by legislative al- 
locations from state highway bond issues. 

WATER — Charge of $120 per million gallons, with 
special provisions for communities outside the Water 
District. A $200 rate was established effective January 1, 
1974, to finance the change from deficit financing to a 
pay-as-you-go system. The increase will reflect in 1975 
fiscal year income. 

SEWERAGE — Debt requirements apportioned on 



the basis of capacity of municipal sewers connected to 
MDC sewerage system; maintenance expense assessed 
on the basis of population. 

For the fiscal year ending June 30. 1974. the Com- 
mission spent $44,837,262 on maintenance and opera- 
tions, an increase of $5,819,096 over the previous year. 
Interest and principal payments on bonds issued for 
capital projects and water fund deficits amounted to 
$23,533,182, up $862,975 over 1973. The combined ex- 
penditure was $68,370,444. 

An additional $4,273,945 was expended for highway 
construction from state highway bond funds and for 
certain flood control projects from other special au- 
thorizations, which do not reflect in assessments on 
MDC cities and towns. 

The $72,644,389 total represented 62% for mainte- 
nance and operations. 32% for bonded debt and 6% for 
expenditures from state bond funds. 

Major factors in the $5,819,096 rise for maintenance 
and operations were nearly $4 million for the shift of 
Construction Engineering Division expense from long- 
term construction bond issues to an annual appropria- 
tion, a general cost of living pay increase averaging 
4.8% and other effects of the inflationary trend. Under 
new legislation, the Sewerage and Water Districts each 
pay 49% of the Engineering Division s annual budget 
and 2% comes from the state s General Fund. Use of 
construction bond funds for the division's payroll and 
other costs had been authorized by legislation since 
1926. 









EXPENDITURES 












1974 






1973 






Operations 




Debt 


Operations 




Debt 


Administration 


$ 766.443 




— 


$ 758.325 




- 


* Parks 


25.418.856 




$ 5.103.022 


24.212.201 




$ 4.825.767 


Sewerage 


9.436,165 




7.576.295 


6.809.462 




7.534.928 


Water 


9.215.798 




10.853.865 
$23,533,182 


7,238.178 




10.309512 
$22670 207 


$44,837,262 


$39,018,166 


Total 




$68,370,444 






$61,688,373 




'Inclu 
Note 
bond 
MDC 


des cost of MDC Police operations 

- An additional $4,273,945 was spent in 1974 and $5,557,382 in 1973 for highway cons- 
issues and flood control and other special authorizations financed by state General Fund bond 
cities and towns. 


issues rai 

















25 











PRINCIPAL INCOME SOURCES 


















1974 




1973 










Parks 








$14,856,754 




16,321,882 








37 Cities & Towns 


Sewerage 








14,082,224 




13,455,968 








43 Cities & Towns 


Water 








12,450,665 




12,461,148 








32 Cities & Towns 


State 

Highway 

Fund 








15,448,223 




14,869,303 










State 

General 

Fund 








314,395 




223,351 










Revenue 








2,938,945 




2,669,810 








Admissions, Sales, 
Fees, etc. 


Water 
Deficit 
Bonds 








4,550,000 




3,585,000 










Total 








$64,641,206 




$63,586,462 










Note: Income figures for Water and Sewerage differ slightly from assessment table, 
of power, licenses, fees, concession permits, etc., do not accrue to the Comm 
directly into the appropriate fund and thereby reduces assessments against 
bursements ordinarily have the same effect. 


due to various adjustments. Sale 
ission for re-use, but rather flow 
cities and towns. Federal reim- 





The 


Commission's 


largest expenditure 


is for personnel, shown 


as follows: 










'PERSONNEL EXPENDITURES 














1974 






1973 




1972 


Administration 






$ 524,976 






$ 566,340 




$ 544,111 


Engineering 






3,494,219 






3,324,074 




2,940,438 


Highway Eng. 






492,929 






476.456 




427,007 


Parks & 
Parks Eng. 






9,114,975 






8.692,089 




9,148,472 


Police 






7,826,025 






7,365,332 




6,931,721 


Sewerage 






4,549,820 






4,487,642 




4,336,135 


Water 






4,891,116 






4,922,443 




4,916,154 


Total 






$30,894,060 






$29,834,376 




$29,244,038 


'Includes perm 


anent, 


temporary and seasonal employees as 


of Junt 


»30. 









26 







TOTAL PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY EMPLOYEES AS OF JUNE 30 












1974 








1973 






1972 








Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 




Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp 


Total 




Administration 


57 


4 


61 




56 


6 


62 


58 


8 


66 




Engineering 


259 


— 


259 




274 


— 


274 


268 


— 


268 




Highway Engineering 


- 


43 


43 




- 


46 


46 


— 


44 


44 




Parks & Parks Eng. 


658 


1094 


1752 




668 


940 


1608 


657 


1017 


1674 




Police 


579 


23 


602 




551 


23 


574 


613 


— 


613 




Sewerage 


461 


2 


463 




441 


- 


441 


454 


2 


456 




Water 


507 


64 


571 




510 


41 


551 


531 


77 


608 




Total 


2521 


1230 


3751 




2500 


1056 


3556 


2581 


1148 


3729 



MDC's debt structure — currently $261 million — has shown a flattening trend in recent years in terms of con- 
struction bond issues, but future growth is anticipated. 

Debt increase will reflect major construction for the Water District, such as the huge Dorchester Tunnel, neanng 
completion, expansion of the distribution system to communities north and south of Boston and a 10-mile aqueduct 
link between Quabbin Reservoir and the Northfield Mountain pumped storage reservoir for diverting excess 
Connecticut River water. Substantial outlays will also be required by wastewater projects and ongoing studies, 
accompanied by strong pressure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compelling costly upgrading of 
the Deer Island and Nut Island sewage treatment plants. 

A significant factor in the Water Fund indebtedness has been the issuance of long-term bonds to cover annual 
deficits, a procedure instituted by law in 1946 and responsible for borrowing $102 million by 1974. of which $55 8 
million is currently outstanding. Interest payments have practically doubled the cost of payments on deficit debt 
This practice ended when MDC's long-standing proposal for a pay-as-you-go system was authorized by 1973 legisla- 
tion. The changeover was implemented in the 1974 water rate, requiring an increase from $120 per million gallons 
to $200. The additional revenue affects fiscal 1975 receipts. 







OUTSTANDING DEBT. JUNE 30 










(In 


millions of dollars) 








Sewage 




'Water 


Parks 


Total 


1974 


$87,047 




$132646 


$41 461 


$261 174 


1973 


91.301 




130 268 


39 997 


OCl CCA 


1972 


95.555 




129 285 


40 353 


265 193 


1971 


93.659 




117.663 


37 128 


246450 


1970 


89.568 




113 536 


39 353 


242 457 


'Includes Water 


Fund deficit debt. 











27 



TOTAL ASSESSMENTS FOR METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS FOR 1973 




Metropolitan 


Metropolitan Parks 


Metropolitan 




Cities and Towns 


Water 


and Boulevards 


Sewerage System 


Total 


Arlington 


$ 306,875.16 


$ 349,606.72 


$ 343,464.46 


$ 999,946.34 


Ashland 






33,211.56 


33,211.56 


Belmont 


122,716.56 


269,340.31 


160,661.23 


552,718.10 


Boston 


6,555,306.12 


4,899,232.29 


4,614,276.08 


16,068,814.49 


Braintree 




207,378.87 


176,212.56 


383,591.43 


Brookline 


335,027.16 


586,434.06 


299,144.27 


1 ,220,605.49 


Burlington 






101,995.62 


101,995.62 


Cambridge 


43,628.40 


735,074.31 


896,486.99 


1,675,189.70 


Canton 


68,251.32 


82,683.65 


98,101.07 


249,036.04 


Chelsea 


159,515.28 


170,761.39 


252,826.88 


583,103.55 


Cohasset 




3,035.44 




3,035.44 

378,173.85 

34,206.36 


Dedham 




191,114.50 


187,059.35 


Dover 




34,206.36 




Everett 


334,363.08 


457,436.04 


296,728.62 


1,088,527.74 


Framingham 






242,964.48 


242,964.48 


Hingham 




115,246.93 


42,068.66 


157,315.59 


Hull 




76,537.72 




76,537.72 


Lexington 


198,000.48 




196,026.94 


394,027.42 


Lynn 




677,742.87 




677,742.87 


Lynnfield Water District 


15,253.68 






15,253.68 


Maiden 


319,860.84 


347,925.63 


360,497.20 


1 ,028,283.67 
92,301.00 


Marblehead 


92,301 .00 






Medford 


373,342.08 


391 ,780.36 


476,346.95 


1 ,241 ,469.39 


Melrose 


128,516.64 


211,240.90 


223,639.85 


573,397.39 


Milton 


99,334.80 


229,826.80 


225,335.79 


554,497.39 


Nahant 


25,118.16 


28,379.78 




53,497.94 


Natick 






153,261.66 


153,261.66 


Need ham 


35.807.16 


221,975.28 


175,029.84 


432,812.28 


Newton 


509,344.08 


835,125.50 


650,769.06 


1 ,995,238.64 


Norwood 


223,020.00 




154,379.52 


377,399.52 


Peabody 


35,571.60 






35,571.60 


Quincy 


461 ,026.68 


678,382.45 


611,221.02 


1,750,630.15 


Randolph 






122,789.45 


122,789.45 


Reading 






88,001.04 


88,001.04 


Revere 


155,187.72 


243,693.15 


217,775.83 


616,656.70 


Saugus 


124,940.04 


129,302.91 




254,242.95 


Somerville 


483,336.48 


536,919.97 


530,668.76 


1,550,925.21 


Stoneham 


138,462.96 


116,982.20 


124,999.59 


380,444.75 


Stoughton 






85,572.38 


85,572.38 


Swampscott 


61,227.60 


50,989.86 




112,217.46 


Wakefield 


95,865.60 


160,286.47 


139,845.55 


395,997.62 


Walpole 






75,207.23 


75,207.23 


Waltham 


484,992.12 


367,460.90 


316,505.26 


1,168,958.28 


Watertown 


199,578.24 


299,092.29 


238,789.76 


737,460.29 


Wellesley 




265,785.48 


132,130.75 


397,916.23 


Weston 


35,523.36 


88,574.47 




124,097.83 


Westwood 




81,851.84 


70,386.78 


152.238.62 


Weymouth 




394,703.91 


278,791.42 


673,495.33 


Wilmington 






68,692.60 


68,692.60 


Winchester 


28,513.32 


186,036.70 


215,425.97 


429,975.99 


Winthrop 


80.391.24 


124,606.09 


130.122.77 


335,120.10 


Woburn 






262,295.00 


262,295.00 
$41,256,663.16 


$12,330,198.96 


$14,856,754.40 


$14,069,709.80 






Note: Assessments for 1973 were received in fiscal 1974 



28 











DISTRICT MEMBERSHIP 








Water 


Parks 


Sewerag 


9 Water 


Parks Sewerage 


Arlington 




X 


X 


X 


Revere x 


X X 


Ashland 








X 


Saugus x 


X 


Belmont 




X 


X 


X 


Somerville x 


X X 


'Bedford 








X 


Stoneham x 


X X 


Boston 




X 


X 


X 


Stoughton 


X 


Braintree 






X 


X 


Swampscott x 


X 


Brookline 




X 


X 


X 


Wakefield x 


X X 


Burlington 








X 


Walpole 


X 


Cambridge 




X 


X 


X 


Waltham x 


X X 


Canton 




X 


X 


X 


Watertown x 


X X 


Chelsea 




X 


X 


X 


**Wellesley x 


X X 


Cohasset 






X 




Weston x 


X 


Dedham 






X 


X 


Westwood 


X X 


Dover 






X 




Weymouth 


X X 


Everett 




X 


X 


X 


Wilmington 


X 


Framingham 








X 


Winchester x 


X X 


Hingham 






X 


X 


Winthrop x 


X X 


*Holbrook 








X 


**Woburn x 


X 


Hull 
Lexington 




X 


X 


X 


Totals 34 


37 ~43 


Lynn 






X 








Lynnfield Water 


Dist. 


X 






(Beyond the Water Distn 


ct the MDC furnishes 


Maiden 




X 


X 


X 


the entire water supply 


for Chicopee. South 


Marblehead 




X 






Hadley Fire District No. 


1 and Wilbraham. a 


Medford 
Melrose 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


partial supply to Clinton. Framingham. Leom- 
inster. Marlboro. Northboro and Southboro 


Milton 

Nahant 

Natick 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


and an emergency standby connection for 
Worcester.) 


Needham 
Newton 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


Membership 




Norwood 

Peabody 

Quincy 

Randolph 

Reading 




X 
X 
X 


X 


X 

X 
X 
X 


3 Districts 24 

2 Districts 12 

1 District 18 

54 




'Bedford joined the Sewerage District in June. 1970. with sewage for part of the town handled through the town of Lexington 
under special contract Holbrook became a member of Sewerage District in January. 1971. but is not contributing sewage to the 
system. 


**Woburn was admitted to Water District in 
completion of connections. 


August. 1972, 


and Wellesley in March. 1974. but neither is being supplied pending 



METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

District Membership 

Parks - Water - Sewerage 

Total Members -54 

Member of all three MDC districts 

Member of two districts 
D Member of one district 
W Parks - 37 
W Water - 34 
S Sewerage — 43 




Note: Woburn and Wellesley are new members of the Water District but are not being supplied pending 
completion of connections.